Energy Updates

Drilling Productivity in the United States: What Lies Beneath

By Jason P. Brown and David Rodziewicz
May 29, 2019 | Economic Bulletin

Research shows that drilling productivity increased six-fold from the mid-2000s to early 2017. Gains in below-ground efficiency—the number of barrels produced per foot of drilled wells—have largely driven this increase in overall productivity. The large oil price declines during the Great Recession and from 2014 to 2016 also played a role. However, further large increases in productivity are unlikely absent additional improvements in technology or a subsequent large downturn in oil prices.

Capital Reallocation and Capital Investment

By David Rodziewicz and Nicholas Sly
April 08, 2019

Corporate debt levels have grown substantially during the 10year recovery from the global financial crisis. Even excluding the financial sector of the U.S. economy, the value of corporate bonds outstanding grew from approximately $3 trillion in 2008 to nearly $6 trillion in 2018. Crucial in weighing these concerns is identifying whether capital reallocation is a substitute for or complement to new investment.

Does Resource Ownership Matter? Oil and Gas Royalties and the Income Effect of Extraction

By Jason P. Brown, Timothy Fitzgerald and Jeremy G. Weber
January 23, 2019

This study shows how subsurface ownership shapes the income effects of oil and gas extraction. For the average U.S. county with growth in extraction from 2000 to 2014, we find that royalty income and its multiplier effect accounted for 70 percent of the total income gain, with each royalty dollar generating an additional 49 cents of local income. A county where residents own the subsurface captured 28 cents more of each dollar in production than one with absentee ownership. Nationally, oil and gas production increased U.S. personal income in 2014 by $67 billion (0.5 percent) more than if all royalties accrued abroad. Areas with the same resource abundance can therefore experience contrasting economic outcomes because of differences in ownership.

Energy Investment Variability within the Macroeconomy

By David Rodziewicz
August 22, 2018 | Economic Review

Over the past 10 years, U.S. investment has become more variable. David Rodziewicz finds that the increase in variability was driven by a combination of increased energy investment and an increased concentration of investment in more volatile segments of the sector.  

Oil and Gas Productivity Doubled in the Past Five Years—What Happens Next?

By Chad Wilkerson
June 18, 2018 | 2nd Quarter 2018

The second quarter issue of the Oklahoma Economist looks at the data and factors behind the recent rise in U.S. oil and gas productivity and compares it to other industries that have experienced similiar surges in productivity.

What Could Resurging U.S. Energy Production Mean for the U.S. Trade Deficit?

By Nida Cakir Melek and Jun Nie
March 07, 2018

Over the past decade, U.S. energy production has boomed, reducing the demand for energy imports and boosting energy exports. The resulting large decline in net energy imports has helped reduce the U.S. trade deficit significantly. Resurging energy production and booming energy exports in recent months will likely help reduce the U.S. trade deficit by another 5 percent by the end of 2018.

Do Adverse Oil Price Shocks Change Loan Contract Terms for Energy Firms?

By Rajdeep Sengupta, W. Blake Marsh and David Rodziewicz
November 30, 2017 | Economic Review

The 2014 oil price decline sparked concerns about energy firms' future earnings and creditworthiness. Rajdeep Sengupta, W. Blake Marsh, and David Rodziewicz find that oil firms involved in exploration and drilling were charged higher loan prices relative to other oil firms in the wake of the decline.

Tenth District Energy Activity Expanded Moderately

Fourth quarter energy survey results revealed Tenth District energy activity expanded moderately but continued to lag year-ago levels.

Chart 1. Drilling/Business Activity Index vs. a Quarter Ago

The Energy Databook provides current economic indicators to help monitor trends and allow comparison of past information. These indicators include: oil and natural gas prices; global petroleum production and demand; U.S. oil production and petroleum demand; U.S. crude oil stocks; OECD petroleum stocks; U.S. oil imports; U.S. oil exports; oil and gas drilling rig counts; and U.S. natural gas production.

Current databook: August 3, 2020

View past issues of the Energy Databook.






The Federal Reserve Banks of Dallas and Kansas City will host their fifth joint energy conference virtually on November 20. The conference will focus on the outlook for the global crude oil market, opportunities and risks of the global energy transition, energy finance and more.

Featured Speakers:

  • Esther George, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City
  • Robert S. Kaplan, Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas
  • Dean Foreman, American Petroleum Institute
  • Robert McNally, Rapidan Energy
  • Kathryn Miller, BTU Analytics
  • Tim Fitzgibbon, McKinsey and Co.
  • Logan Goldie-Scot, BloombergNEF
  • Peggy Simmons, Public Service Company of Oklahoma
  • Chris Holmgren, Wells Fargo
  • Ryan Omohundro, Alvarez & Marsal
  • Jigar Shah, Generate Capital
  • Rick Muncrief, WPX Energy
  • Cindy Taylor, Oil States International
  • Paula Gold-Williams, CPS Energy

For more information, visit the conference web page.


The Federal Reserve Banks of Kansas City and Dallas held their fourth joint energy conference on October 18 in Denver. The conference focused on the outlook for the global crude oil market, renewable and energy transitions with the U.S. generation mix, energy finance and more. 

Visit the conference page for full agenda.

The Federal Reserve Banks of Dallas and Kansas City will host their third joint energy conference on September 7 in Dallas. The conference will focus on global oil market dynamics, the long-term outlook for U.S. shale, and U.S. energy trade flows. Participants are business leaders, central bankers, government officials, academics and financial market representatives.

Featured Speakers:

  • Robert S. Kaplan, Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas
  • John Auers, Turner, Mason & Co.
  • Linda Capuano, U.S. Energy Information Administration
  • Willie Chiang, Plains All American Pipeline
  • Helima Croft, RBC Capital Markets
  • Greg Determann, JPMorgan Chase
  • Tom Jorden, Cimarex Energy
  • Ed Morse, Citigroup
  • C.H. “Scott” Rees III, Netherland, Sewell & Associates
  • Kate Richard, Warwick Energy Group
  • Ron Ripple, University of Tulsa
  • Mark Schwartz, S&P Global Platts
  • Torsten Sløk, Deutsche Bank

For more information, visit the conference web page. 

The Federal Reserve Banks of Kansas City and Dallas held their second joint energy conference on Sept. 22, 2017, which focused on global oil supply dynamics, the global oil demand outlook, and the oil and gas regulatory environment.

For more information, visit the conference event page.

The Oklahoma City Branch of the Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City hosted research economists from across the Federal Reserve System and other central banks at the Federal Reserve System Energy Meeting in September.

For more information, visit the meeting event page.

The Federal Reserve Banks of Dallas and Kansas City held their first joint energy conference, which focused on the key drivers of recent oil price movements and their implications for the energy industry, the financial sector and the broader economy. Top leaders from academia, business and government presented and discussed their views on these topics.

For more information, visit the conference web page.