Banking and Payments Research

Research staff analyze domestic and international payments systems as well as the banking industry.

Recent Articles

Research Working Paper

Credit Guarantee and Fiscal Costs

A government guarantee on infrastructure investment can raise non-performing loans and dampen economic activity in the near term.

Payments System Research Briefing

Data Aggregators: The Connective Tissue for Open Banking

Data aggregators play a critical role in financial service apps, generating benefits as well as risks.

Economic Review

Government Assistance and Moral Hazard: Evidence from the Savings and Loan Crisis

In 1989, S&Ls strengthened their balance sheets when the potential for future government assistance was withdrawn.

Economic Bulletin

Increased Loan Demand and Higher Interest Rates May Benefit Ag Banks

Ag banks could see higher net interest margins if supply chain disruptions drive up farm costs or interest rates rise.

Economic Bulletin

Assessing Market Conditions ahead of Quantitative Tightening

Reducing the Federal Reserve’s balance sheet may be more disruptive to markets in 2022 than it was in 2017.

Economic Review

Considering Bank Age and Performance for De Novo Status

Analysis of new banks’ financial performance over time supports a three-year period of enhanced supervision.

Banking and Payments Resources

Payments Resources

Policy Perspectives
Policy Perspectives are written by Esther George, president and CEO of the Kansas City Fed. In this occasional publication series, she discusses issues related to the Federal Reserve’s role in payments, banking supervision and monetary policy. 

Payments System Research Briefings
Our briefings cover payments methods, developments in payments networks, and various participants' roles in the payments system.

Payments System Research Working Papers
Our paper topics include payments methods, developments in payments networks and various participants' roles in the payments system.

Interchange Fees
An annual update of credit and debit card interchange fees in various countries, regulatory developments in the payment card markets, and trends in interchange fees assessed to U.S. merchants.

Payment Conferences Proceedings
Our international payments policy conferences focus on timely and important topics.

PDFGuide to ATM and Debit Card Industry - 2006 Update
This book is a 2006 update that documents industry trends and patterns and discusses their implications.

PDFGuide to ATM and Debit Card Industry
This book provides an overview of the history and development of the ATM and debit card industry, details the mechanics of ATM and debit transactions, reviews trends in ATM and debit transaction volume and pricing, and discusses industry and public policy issues.

PDFNonbanks in the Payments System
This book examines nonbank participation of payments activities and the roles nonbanks play in specific transaction types.

Banking Resources

Small Business Lending Survey
Quarterly collection of quantitative and qualitative information that can be used to understand credit market conditions for bank lending to small businesses.

Bank Capital Analysis
The Bank Capital Analysis provides a horizontal comparison of capital adequacy among banking organizations with different risk profiles.