Research staff analyze domestic and international payments systems as well as the banking industry.

Banking and Payments Research

Recent Articles

Payments System Research Briefing

The Rise of Buy Now, Pay Later: Bank and Payment Network Perspectives and Regulatory Considerations

Incumbent players in the payments industry have started to respond to the rise of “buy now, pay later” payment options.

Payments System Research Briefing

When Paying Bills, Low-Income Consumers Incur Higher Costs

Low-income consumers rely on costlier methods to pay bills, even if they have bank accounts.

Research Working Paper

National Interests, Spillovers and Macroprudential Coordination

International regulatory standards can improve financial stability for all countries, but some countries have fewer incentives...

Economic Bulletin

Bank Profitability Rebounds despite Compressed Interest Margins

Pandemic monetary and fiscal policies helped bank profitability recover.

Payments System Research Briefing

The Appeal and Proliferation of Buy Now, Pay Later: Consumer and Merchant Perspectives

“Buy now, pay later” products offer benefits to consumers and merchants, but not without risk.

Economic Review

Prepaid Cards: An Inadequate Solution for Digital Payments Inclusion

Although prepaid cards have the potential to address digital payments exclusion, their use among unbanked households remains low.

Banking and Payments Resources

Payments Resources

Policy Perspectives
Policy Perspectives are written by Esther George, president and CEO of the Kansas City Fed. In this occasional publication series, she discusses issues related to the Federal Reserve’s role in payments, banking supervision and monetary policy. 

Payments System Research Briefings
Our briefings cover payments methods, developments in payments networks, and various participants' roles in the payments system.

Payments System Research Working Papers
Our paper topics include payments methods, developments in payments networks and various participants' roles in the payments system.

Interchange Fees
An annual update of credit and debit card interchange fees in various countries, regulatory developments in the payment card markets, and trends in interchange fees assessed to U.S. merchants.

Payment Conferences Proceedings
Our international payments policy conferences focus on timely and important topics.

PDFGuide to ATM and Debit Card Industry - 2006 Update
This book is a 2006 update that documents industry trends and patterns and discusses their implications.

PDFGuide to ATM and Debit Card Industry
This book provides an overview of the history and development of the ATM and debit card industry, details the mechanics of ATM and debit transactions, reviews trends in ATM and debit transaction volume and pricing, and discusses industry and public policy issues.

PDFNonbanks in the Payments System
This book examines nonbank participation of payments activities and the roles nonbanks play in specific transaction types.

Banking Resources

Small Business Lending Survey
Quarterly collection of quantitative and qualitative information that can be used to understand credit market conditions for bank lending to small businesses.

Bank Capital Analysis
The Bank Capital Analysis provides a horizontal comparison of capital adequacy among banking organizations with different risk profiles.