Research staff analyze domestic and international payments systems as well as the banking industry.

Banking and Payments Research

Recent Articles

Economic Bulletin

Pandemic Relief Has Aided Low-Income Individuals: Evidence from Alternative Financial Services

Although low-income individuals are more likely to have lost their jobs due to the COVID-19 pandemic, pandemic relief efforts...

Economic Bulletin

PPP Raised Community Bank Revenue but Lowered Profitability

Community banks have played an outsized role in the Paycheck Protection Program (PPP), disbursing 37 percent of all PPP loans...

Payments System Research Briefing

Inclusion by Design: Crafting a Central Bank Digital Currency to Reach All Americans

One motivation for a central bank digital currency (CBDC) is financial inclusion—bringing unbanked Americans into the payments...

Payments System Research Briefing

Remote Card Payment Fraud: Trends and Measures Taken in Australia, France, and the United Kingdom

Australia, France, and the United Kingdom have successfully reduced remote card payment fraud rates in recent years. In each...

Economic Review

The Macroeconomic Fallout of Shutting Down the Banking System

Preventing the suspension of bank deposits during recessions may also prevent longer-term economic losses.

Payments System Research Briefing

How the COVID-19 Pandemic May Reshape the Digital Payments Landscape

Despite an increase in payments made via online or mobile channels in recent years, many consumers have not yet adopted...

Banking and Payments Resources

Payments Resources

Policy Perspectives
Policy Perspectives are written by Esther George, president and CEO of the Kansas City Fed. In this occasional publication series, she discusses issues related to the Federal Reserve’s role in payments, banking supervision and monetary policy. 

Payments System Research Briefings
Our briefings cover payments methods, developments in payments networks, and various participants' roles in the payments system.

Payments System Research Working Papers
Our paper topics include payments methods, developments in payments networks and various participants' roles in the payments system.

Interchange Fees
An annual update of credit and debit card interchange fees in various countries, regulatory developments in the payment card markets, and trends in interchange fees assessed to U.S. merchants.

PDFGuide to ATM and Debit Card Industry - 2006 Update
This book is a 2006 update that documents industry trends and patterns and discusses their implications.

PDFGuide to ATM and Debit Card Industry
This book provides an overview of the history and developement of the ATM and debit card industry, details the mechanics of ATM and debit transactions, reviews trends in ATM and debit transaction volume and pricing, and discusses industry and public policy issues.

PDFNonbanks in the Payment System
This book examines nonbank participation of payments activities and the roles nonbanks play in specific transaction types.

Banking Resources

Small Business Lending Survey
Quarterly collection of quantitative and qualitative information that can be used to understand credit market conditions for bank lending to small businesses.

Bank Capital Analysis
The Bank Capital Analysis provides a horizontal comparison of capital adequacy among banking organizations with different risk profiles.