Ying Lei Toh is an economist in the Economic Research Department at the Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City. Ms. Toh joined the Bank in 2018, after earning her Ph.D. in Economics at Toulouse School of Economics (TSE), France. She also holds a M.Sc. in Economics from TSE and a B.A. (with Honors) in Economics from Nanyang Technological University, Singapore. Her research focuses on the digital economy---particularly, the issues of consumer privacy, data protection and cyber‐security---and the payments market.

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