Ying Lei Toh is an economist in the Economic Research Department at the Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City. Ms. Toh joined the Bank in 2018, after earning her Ph.D. in Economics at Toulouse School of Economics (TSE), France. She also holds a M.Sc. in Economics from TSE and a B.A. (with Honors) in Economics from Nanyang Technological University, Singapore. Her research focuses on the digital economy---particularly, the issues of consumer privacy, data protection and cyber‐security---and the payments market.

Professional Journals and Books

  • “Heterogeneous unbanked households: Which types of households are more (or less) likely to open a bank account?” with Fumiko Hayashi and Aditi Routh, 2023, Journal of Economics and Business, forthcoming.
  • “Privacy regulation and quality-enhancing innovation," with Yassine Lefouili and Leonardo Madio, 2023, The Journal of Industrial Economics, forthcoming.

Economic Review Articles

Other District Publications

Research Working Papers

Economic Bulletin